MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLD OF SCIENCE


 

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Diagram of a solar eclipse / From The Wonders of Creation and the Oddities of Existence / Text by Zakariyya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini / Paper, ink, pigment / Syria, Late 13th century AD / MS.647 p.29 / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

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Elephant Clock invented by Master Engineer Al-Jazari / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

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Artistic impressions of Abbas ibn Firnas and his successful 9th-century flight / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

In 9th century Spain, Muslim inventor Abbas ibn Firnas designed a flying machine — hundreds of years before da Vinci drew plans of his own.

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A scale model of Al-Jazari’s 13th-century Scribe Clock / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

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Qibla indicator / Abd al-A’imma / Brass / Iran (Isfahan) / Late 17th century AD / MW.452 / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

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Al-Idrisi’s 12th-century world map / Courtesy of 1001 Inventions

Rabi’ah (ra) states, “I seen the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W(pbuh) on countless occassions, brushing his teeth with the siwaak (tooth stick), while he was in the state of fasting” (Tirmidhi)

The Method of Medicine) was an influential Arabic medical encyclopedia on medicine and surgery, written near the year 1000 CE by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), the “father of modern surgery”.The 30-volume work includes anatomical descriptions, classifications of diseases, information on nutrition and surgery, and sections on medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, and especially surgery.

Think of origins of that staple of modern life,The cup of Coffe ,and Italy often springs to mind.But in Fact,Yemen is where the ubiquitous brew has its true origins.

“That fondness for science, … that affability and condescension which God shows to the learned, that promptitude with which he protects and supports them in the elucidation of obscurities and in the
removal of difficulties, has encouraged me to compose a short work on calculating by al-jabr and al-muqabala, confining it to what is easiest and most useful in arithmetic.”
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi Arab Mathematician
Mariam and Fatima Al-Fihri – Founded the First Modern University, al-Qarawiyyin University 859 CE –
Guinness Book Recorded as the oldest University on Earth
In the Genius Arab Civilization, A. I Sabra stated, “Ibn al Haytham’s most important contribution
were in the fields of optics, mathematics, and astronomy
Arround the year 1000 “Ibn al- haytham’s”Proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eyes,dismissing Euclid and ptolemy’s theories that light was emitted from the eyes itself .This great muslim physicist also discovered the camera obscura and phenomenon,which explains how the eyes sees images upright due to the connection between the optics nerve and the brain .
al-Jazari created a musical automaton, which was a boat with four automatic musicians
that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties
al-jazari’s double acting piston pump is unique .it is the first pump known to have had true suction pipes
Many of al-Jazari’s components and techniques were useful in the development of modern mechanical engineering. These include the static balancing of large pulley wheels; calibration of orifices; use of wooden templates; use of paper models in design; lamination of timber to prevent warping; the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit; casting of brass and copper in closed mold boxes with greensand; use of tipping buckets that discharge their contents automatically; and the use of segmental gears
Many of the basics of modern automatics were first put to use in the Muslim World,Including the revolutionary crank-connecting rod system.By converting rotary motion to linear motion,the crank enables the lifting of heavy object with relative ease.This technology,discovered by Al-Jazari’s in 12th century,Exploded across the globe,Leading to everything from bicycle to the internal combustion engine.

al-Zahrawi treating a patient while students look on.in the 900s CE

Hospital as we know them today, With wards and teaching centers,come from 9th century Egypt.The first such medical center was the Ahmad ibn tulun Hospital founded in 872CE in Cairo(Egypt).Tulun hospital provided free care for anyone who needed it- a policy based on the Muslim Tradition of caring for all who are sick.From Cairo,Such hospitals spread around the muslim world.The most famous hospitals, including those in Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo, contained lecture rooms, pharmacies and libraries. As important as reading and mastering texts was to instruction in the Islamic tradition, many students received practical training in hospitals. Some even observed patients at the bedside.

Two men playing chess
Description / Mathematical Analysis of CHESS
Irrigation techniques and underground wells
Irrigation Techniques and Underground Wells
Zoology
Zoology
Banking system
Money and Banking System
Muslim calligraphy
Islamic Calligraphy & ART
Geometric and floral design
Geometric and Floral Designs (Art & Craft)
Bookmaking
The Art of Book Making and Publishing
House of Wisdom
The House of Wisdom – Baghdad (Scientific Laboratory)
Astronomy
Astronomy
Algebra
Algebra (Mathematics)
Hospital at Cordoba
The Concept of Hospitals
Herbal medicines and pharmacies
Herbal Medicines and Pharmacies
City of Baghdad
Baghdad – A City of Science Philosophy and Excellence
Polo
The game of POLO (Sports & Entertainment)
Libraries at Cordoba
The Libraries of Coddoba (Education and Knowledge)
Music - Man playing the oud
The Music of Muslim Spain (Music & Entertainment)
The Book of Optics by Muslim Scientist Ibn-Al-Haytham
Contribution By Ibn-Al-Haythem:
01. Development of Scientific Method
02. Basic Optics Instruments
03. First Discovery of Force of Gravity
04. Study of the phenomenon of pinhole Camera
05. Discovery of Reflection and Refraction of Light
06. Calculate the depth of earth’s atmosphere
07. Astronomy
08. Discovery of Calculus
09. Mathematics to find Direction of Mecca
10. Empirical Methods to disprove a false prophet
11. Music Therapy
12. Laws governing the motion of body (Newtonion Laws of Physics)
Social Economics and Government Taxation
Ibn-e-Khuldon proposed model of social economical system and presented modernized taxation ideas.
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References:

  1. http://articles.cnn.com/2010-01-29/world/muslim.inventions_1_hassani-inventions-muslim?_s=PM:WORLD
  2. http://dawn.com/2011/03/06/non-fiction-the-muslim-contribution/
  3. http://therising1.blogspot.com/2012/05/most-top-islamic-muslim-inventions.html
  4. http://www.defence.pk/forums/members-club/182788-muslims-invented-alcohol-10.html
  5. http://travelswithmyhat.com/general/1001-inventions-muslim-contributions-to-civilisation/
  6. http://saypeople.com/2012/06/05/what-i-have-learnt-from-the-life-of-my-favorite-scientist/#axzz2DkXIArB5
  7. http://engagemn.com/2008/06/23/far-far-away-from-muslims-you-say/
  8. http://islamicartsmagazine.com/magazine/view/1001_inventions_and_arabick_roots_exhibitions_launch_in_doha/
  9. http://kaheel7.com/eng/index.php/secrets-of-quran-a-sunnah/132-seven-scientific-facts-testify-that-mohamed-is-sincere
  10. http://cis-ca.org/voices/b/bucaille-mn.htm
  11. tp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_and_science
  12. http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/RiseofIslam/RiseofIslamLessonsMain.htm
  13. http://lostislamichistory.com/ibn-al-haytham-the-first-scientist/
  14. https://bittertruthpk.wordpress.com/2012/12/04/how-to-make-money-ibn-khaldun-and-taxes/